What does gaming and politics have in common? A lot! It is time for one of Sweden's largest gaming conferences and exhibitions in Skövde – Sweden Game Conference. This year's theme is "Games and Politics".
The New Honorary Doctors of the University of Skövde, Anna Rosling Rönnlund and Ola Rosling, have been awarded their honorary doctorates at the University of Skövde.
Last week, the University of Skövde hosted a visit by the Mexican ambassador Agustín Gasca Pliego. – I am impressed to see that a municipality with 50,000 citizens is able to offer a University of this size and opportunities.
The self-rated personalities of men and women differ more in more gender equal countries, according to recent research from the University of Gothenburg, University West and the University of Skövde.
For the longest time, it looked as if this year's Skövde Pride would be cancelled. Fortunately, Hanna Forsling, a student at the Univesity of Skövde, wanted that to change.
New avenues are now being opened for future treatment of Laing distal myopathy, a rare disorder that causes muscles in the feet, hands and elsewhere to atrophy. In a study published in the journal PNAS, researchers have identified an enzyme with a clear link to how the disease develops.
The university's gaming research stands out and gets attention from western France. When Etienne, a student of engineering, was looking for a traineeship, his choice fell on the University of Skövde and the research in the field of Serious Games.
The University of Skövde has conducted successful research in open source software and open standards. EU is investigating these fields and Björn Lundell, Professor of Computer Science, has been invited to Brussels as an expert.
The progression of sepsis, or blood poisoning, is very quick. A person's condition can become life threatening in just a few hours. Today, blood culture is the method used to diagnose sepsis, and it normally takes around 48 hours to get the results. But by using new instruments for diagnosing, the goal of the the EU-project SMARTDIAGNOS is to reduce that time significantly. And thereby save lives. The project participants have met in Skövde.
On Monday, the international students at the University of Skövde start their fall studies. 150 students from all over the world have gathered in their new home town of Skövde. Ready for the adventures ahead.
A new study by researchers from the University of Turku, Finland and the University of Skövde, Sweden shows that people with more peace of mind in the waking state have more positive dreams, whereas those with more anxiety in the waking state have more negative dreams. This means that dream experiences, as revealed in recalled and reported dreams, may reflect a person’s mental health.
On Wednesday, the University of Skövde hosted a visit by the Ethiopian ambassador, Professor Merga Bekana. The programme included a presentation of the University and the present collaboration with Addis Abeba University.
In a new collaboration with the University of Illinois, College of Medicine, in Rockford, IL, American medical students will get an opportunity to learn more about the Swedish welfare system with focus on healthcare. In the future, there are also plans for opportunities to travel westward for nursing school students, teachers and researchers from the University of Skövde to exchange experiences. The program is being launched right now.
Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, has called their book Factfulness one of the most important books of our times. And the book is at the top of the sales charts in Sweden. The authors and founders of the Gapminder Foundation, Ola Rosling and Anna Rosling Rönnlund are appointed Honorary Doctors of Informatics of the University of Skövde.
When developing new products there are usually an array of specifications to be met. For example, maximum measurements, weight, and shape. The challenge is often how to optimize one specification without compromising another. Until now. Through his research and model, Kaveh Amouzgar has found a way of combining virtual simulations and calculations to find the best solution.
Industry production can be complicated and many factors are in play, for example, when some machines stop working. But a better decision support system, where multiple sources of information are taken into account, can make a difference when summing up the costs. In his PhD dissertation in Information Technology at the University of Skövde, Bernard Schmidt has studied a model that can lead to reductions in maintenance costs.
Sergey Redyuk, student of Master’s programme in Data Science, is University of Skövde’s Global Swede for 2018. The annual recognition of Global Swede is a joint initiative by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Swedish Institute. This is the eighth year this recognition is awarded.
During May 5 - 9, Skövde Municipality joins in on the European Week. During the week, the international students at the University of Skövde will visit several schools and other places for meetings across national borders.
Just a few years ago, gaming was an interest of a select group in the world’s largest country. But with the arrival of the cell phone in combination with a change of attitude, China has quickly become one of the world’s largest gaming markets. Chinese gaming companies as well as universities, once isolated from the rest of the world, are beginning to look to the western gaming culture for sharing and exchange.
Researchers at the University of Skövde work in close collaboration with the vehicle industry to develop a software that assists design engineers to improve physical ergonomics in cars and trucks. The project is called Virtual Driver Ergonomics.
Imagine having the world as your work place, and you are able to do what you enjoy the most? For Yohannes Tadesse Aklilu, Senior Lecturer in Mathematics at the School of Engineering Science at the University of Skövde, this is not a pipe dream, but his reality. Next stop Rwanda.
Why do some businesses and organizations survive and evolve through crises, while others fold? This question is asked by Stefan Tengblad, Professor of Business Administration at the University of Skövde, in his recent book The Organizational Resilience Framework. And now, one of the most important organizations in the world wants to hear from Stefan. In March, Stefan has been invited to the UN in New York as a keynote speaker.
The step from Skövde to Pune, a city of five million in west of India, can seem far. But despite the long distance, the collaboration between the University of Skövde and D.Y Patil University (DPU) is close. Just back from Pune is Helena Enroth, professor of molecular biology, boosted with new ideas.
Recently a team of researchers, led by the University of Skövde, discovered a previously unknown genetic variation that causes so called Arthrogryposis AMC, deformation amongst newborns. They found a change in the DNA of a specific gene, which causes a severe form of arthrogryposis AMC, related to the more commonly known group of maladies dystonia*.
Ida Winter is a third year student at the programme Bioscience - Biological Resources and Sustainable Development. Just before the summer, Ida and four other students started the association NATRIX, where Ida is now president. It is an association for students with the purpose of spreading knowledge about sustainable development and environmental issues. The association now has 50 members and is a subordination to the Student Union at the University of Skövde.
On the 21st of August the University of Skövde had the pleasure to welcome 180 International Students.
Our Master students Abdelhamid Yousef, Belinda Priscilla Achieng and Joseph Kirangwa received the Swedish Institute's diploma at the City Hall in Stockholm last Friday.
During Ascension Day several of the University´s functions have changed opening hours.
Luis Alejandro Hernández Renteria from Mexico, student at the Master´s Programme Serious Games at the University of Skövde, has received the Global Swede Award.
On May 30th it is time for the students within the Computer Game Development Program at the University of Skövde to present their game projects live on the Internet.
Five NFGL members studying in Skövde share what it's like, and how studying in Sweden has inspired them to make change in the future.
The Game Developers Conference in San Francisco is the world’s biggest conference within computer gaming development, taking place in San Francisco 27 February – 3 March. The University of Skövde is continuing to position itself internationally as part of the Sweden Game Arena cluster and is there to show northern Europe’s broadest, most cutting-edge range of game degree programs.
Researcher from Skövde is defending her doctor’s thesis: Collaboration may strengthen competiveness in rural areas
Is it possible to stimulate informal collaboration between rural companies and local public operators together with associations within the private sector? And can these together strengthen competitiveness for companies locally? These are questions that Lotten Svensson, doctoral student at the University of Skövde, has devoted her research to. The answers are to be provided by her when she defends her doctor’s thesis on Friday 16 December.
The research environment INFINIT at the University of Skövde is being strengthened by means of a new drive in the area of Open Source. The research project LIM-IT is a four year venture made possible through efforts by the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) as well as by participating businesses and involve experts from partners, and researchers within software development, Open Source, organisational theory and intellectual property law.
The University of Skövde holds an Academic Ceremony in the autumn every other year. This year the ceremony is held on the 7th of October, and no less than ten new professors are to be inaugurated.
Åsa Roos is the name of the University of Skövde’s second honorary doctor. Originally from Skaraborg with several years of experience within computer games and the gaming industry, now active as a UX-designer in Canada.
ASSAR Industrial Innovation Arena is an environment for innovation aimed at businesses and academia within knowledge-driven industries. The University of Skövde is one of five actors who took the initiative and the aim of the venture is to create world-leading industries.
What would happen if our payment system were to crash? Or if another major crisis were to afflict our economic infrastructure? The answers to these questions will be sought by means of a large-scale research project through role play and computer simulation designed by among others the University of Skövde. The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) have given researchers at the School of Informatics the assignment of ascertaining how society can best recover from an IT-incident, natural disaster, political unrest or other threats that would affect the payment system, transportation or food supply in a dramatic way.
ASSAR Industrial Innovation Arena: Sweden’s most important meeting place for manufacturing of the future
ASSAR Industrial Innovation Arena is an integrated innovation environment which will open in Skövde in 2017. The initiators of this venture are the University of Skövde, Gothia Innovation AB, the Volvo Group, the Volvo Car Corporation, and the Industrial Development Center West Sweden AB.
The growing amount of choices that buyers of motor vehicles have been given during the past few years, to customize their vehicles, is positive for the customers, while it causes problems for the vehicle assemblers. But there is a way of facilitating the work and to ease the mental strain of the assemblers. This is shown in the doctor’s thesis that Anna Brolin presented on 2 June. Anna is a PhD student at the School of Engineering Science at the University of Skövde.
Seven students have received The Swedish Institute Study Scholarships to study at the University of Skövde
The Swedish Institute Study Scholarships (SISS) are founded by the Swedish Gouvernement to develop good and long lasting relationships, exchanges and networks with people and institutions in other countries. In this year’s application round seven students have received scholarships to study at the University of Skövde. They come from Rwanda, Uganda, Bhutan, Egypt and Russia and will study Master’s programmes in Tumor Biology, Bioinformatics, Molecular Biotechnology and Data Science.
It was when Veronica Fornlöf began working in the aircraft industry in 2011 that she became interested in aircrafts. It was also in a working capacity that she happened to visit the Air Force Museum in Linköping, the town where she carried out her university studies for the best part of the 2000s. Today the main focus is on the JAS Gripen engine and this particular engine also forms the basis of her research. On 30th May she defended her licentiate thesis at the University of Skövde.
Thanks to a grant from the Erasmus+ programme Aloysius Nnaji, International Coordinator at the University of Skövde, has spent ten days in Ethiopia. A trip that gave him good contacts, interesting meetings and new perspectives on life.
The University of Skövde is today hosting visitors from Japan. The focus is on human-robot interaction research and the DREAM project.
Skövde students Pablo Pareja Ortega and Yang Li have won Volvo Group’s competition called Involve. The prize is a trip to the USA to visit three of Volvo’s operations and one of their partner universities. Pablo who is from Spain and Yang who is from China are both international students studying production engineering in Skövde until the summer of 2016.
Boushra Dalile, who studies Cognitive Neuroscience: Mind, Brain and Well-Being Master’s Programme at the University of Skövde, has been nominated for the Global Swede Ceremony 2016. The ceremony hosted by representatives from the Swedish Government will be held in Stockholm in May.
The job seemed tailor-made for researchers at the University of Skövde. That is how the three ecologists felt when they saw that the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency was going to evaluate the restoration of Lake Hornborga. Up until September, they will now assess the consequences for birds, plants, and water which the restoration has led to.
Everyone is different, some people are tall and others are short. We have different proportions; two people of the same length probably don’t have legs and arms that are the same length. That is why it is important that a product or work place is designed with diversity in mind, and this is something which is not always done today. Doctoral student Erik Brolin has, together with Chalmers and the University of Skövde and Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre for Industrial Mathematics, collaborated in several research projects. In the projects, a computer program has been developed which makes it possible to virtually study if a planned work place or product is suitable for different people.
Sweden Game Arena is one of Europe's premier clusters for education, research and business in games. Home to the largest faculty and student body in Northern Europe in the field of games, the University of Skövde is the heart of this cluster. This year, participants at Game Developers Conference (GDC) will have the opportunity to attend four talks presented by representatives from Skövde and two of these are from the University. The University of Skövde also has a sizeable presence in Sweden Game Arena’s Booth 212 at GDC where visitors will be able to learn about research projects, games and two international Master’s degree programmes in Digital Narration and Serious Games.
Research shows that the Scandinavian model for leadership and organization, with key concepts such as decentralization and delegated responsibility, is a success story for companies. But what is the situation in Swedish companies today? Have the Scandinavian ideas disappeared or are they still around? A research team from the University of Skövde and the University of Borås are going to find out.
During the next three years, researchers at the University of Skövde and the University of Borås will analyze and assess the role of the business developer in health care.
In the basement of one of the buildings at the University of Skövde, there is a very small and very important laboratory. Here research is carried out on cancer diseases, fertility, gluten intolerance, and genetic skeleton and muscle diseases. The one in focus in all this research, besides the researchers themselves, is the ordinary fruit fly.
What is it that makes electronic sports a positive experience for the spectators—and how can that experience become even greater? A research project at the University of Skövde will give an answer to those questions. The project, partly financed by the Västra Götaland region, is a collaboration between the University and the computer-game company Stunlock Studios as well as two more partners: Tarhead Studio and Folkuniversitetet.
A research team at the University of Skövde has developed a innovative computer game that increases children’s safety online. The computer game, “Hidden in the zoo” (“Djurparksgömmet” in Swedish), is intended to raise online risk awareness in 8-10 year olds and to decrease the risk of becoming the object of sexual grooming.
At this year’s edition of Game Developers Conference (GDC) in San Francisco, two talks will be presented by researchers from the University of Skövde and one talk from Skövde-based developer Coffee Stain Studios.
Benjamin Ulfenborg, researcher at the University of Skövde who will publicly defend his doctoral dissertation on February 3, hopes to be able to contribute to an as early detection as possible of cell changes that indicate cancer or a cancer risk. His study aims at finding so called bio markers in order to identify changes in cells that can indicate the development of cancer. “Right now, there’s no immediate clinical use for what I have found. But in the long term, I think that this kind of research will be very important for diagnostics and prognostics—or predictions—of cancer,” says Benjamin who is a doctoral student at the School of Bioscience and associated with the School of Health Sciences at the University of Örebro. The public defense of his doctoral dissertation will take place at the University of Skövde.
The interest for using computer games in classroom education has grown rapidly in recent years. But, how well do computer games actually work as educational tools? This January, Björn Berg Marklund, a researcher on game-based learning at the University of Skövde, is presenting new findings that aims to answer that question.
A cold, but happy, group of international students arrived this week. Our new international students come from Germany, Spain, Holland, Ireland, Hong Kong, Iran, Iraq, Finland and Lithuania.
EU has invited each of its nations to take part in a minute’s silence at 12 pm Monday November 16th to honor the victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. The University of Skövde will participate. The minute of silence will be held at the entrance hall of house G. The flags will be displayed at half-staff during the silence.
The University of Skövde, Sweden, in cooperation with the Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education, is organising a conference on sustainable collaborations between universities in Sweden and Africa, 9th – 10thof November 2015. The conference brings together Swedish and African universities and representatives to discuss specific potential areas of collaboration and the ability to manage these.
On July 3rd, Julia Kaidalova, defends her licentiate thesis "Towards a definition of the role of enterprise modeling in the context of business and IT alignment". This licentiate thesis investigates how organizations can use models in the creation of IT-systems for Business development. The framework positions Enterprise Modeling (EM) conceptually in the context of Business and IT Alignment (BITA) and identifies a number of challenges and recommendations. We have asked Julia to describe her research and findings.
Tsimafei Padvitski, a bioinformatics master student at the University of Skövde has been nominated as Global Swede and will be rewarded at an official diploma ceremony hosted by representatives from the Swedish Government held in Stockholm in May.
Sweden Game Arena makes a major showing at the Game Developers Conference in San Francisco. Booth 124 in the North Hall at the Moscone Convention Center will be a vibrating meeting place. One of many activities is the demonstration of The Westport Independent, a new game from Double Zero One Zero that is published by Coffee Stain Studios.
Prostate cancer is an increasing health concern among males in Sweden, with sexual history as a consistent risk factor. Dr Neha Singh, Post-Doctor at the University of Skövde, recently published an article in Nature Publications that indicates the presence of HPV infection in prostate cancer – and that men in this light could also benefit from HPV vaccine in the future.
Computer game development meets fine art when the Valand Academy and the University of Skövde launch their new summer course, located at the Art Hall in Skövde. Together with teachers and international guest speakers, students will explore the relationship between art, play and games.
The international students have now arrived at the University of Skövde. A total of 80 international students are spending the spring in Skövde, and for most of them it is the first time in Sweden. There is a lot of diversity among the students; 25 countries are represented among the students.
LA Game Industry Veteran Speaks at World's First Degree Program for Game Writers, visits Sweden Game Arena
Artificial Cognitive Systems – A Primer is a book recently published by David Vernon, Professor of Informatics at the University of Skövde at MIT Press.
On the 10th of October, the University of Skövde celebrated the inauguration of five new professors and the conferment of doctoral degrees at an academic ceremony in St. Helen’s church. Prof. Noel Sharkey was conferred with an Honorary Doctorate in Informatics, the first at the University of Skövde.
The well-knowned Swedish warship Vasa is withering away, and to reaching the goal of preserving the ship for a thousand years it needs to be saved. Students from the University of Skövde have in their master thesis looked into saving the Vasa from deforming even more.
On Friday the 26th of September, between 12:30 and 16:00, the University of Skövde arranges Researchers‘ night together with Balthazar Science Centre in Skövde. The visitors get to experience an interesting mix of experiments, workshops and different activities. The event is free of charge and offers both a science slam and a science fair.
On Monday afternoon the University of Skövde welcomed about 150 new international students with an introduction. The international students come from about 30 different countries. Most of them are visiting Skövde, and Sweden, for the first time. During the introduction they got a few good advice:
Online “sexual grooming” is the process by which a child is befriended by a would-be abuser in an attempt to gain the child’s confidence and trust. In online interactions, children run the risk of being abused and some contacts may also lead to physical meetings where children can become subject to further abuse. A research group at the University of Skövde is now launching a project with the aim of increasing children’s safety online. The project is being carried out in collaboration with the Change Attitude Foundation.
Arsenic is one of the most abundant substances in the earth’s crust, and can be found everywhere in nature. It is also extremely poisonous to us humans, and long-term exposure can lead to many serious illnesses. Researchers in molecular biology at the University of Skövde have now developed an entirely new type of plant that can absorb and store arsenic – in its roots.
The Swedish Higher Education Authority (Universitetskanslerämbetet, UKÄ) is a national organization responsible for monitoring quality of education at all Higher Education institutions in Sweden.
Cadmium is a known carcinogen. Recent studies by researchers at the University of Skövde and Dominican University of California now show that even very low levels of cadmium may be dangerous and lead to breast cancer progression.
In 2014, the number of international students admitted to Swedish Universities increased by 15 percent. The University of Skövde had an increase of 16 percent.
Imagine socially intelligent computer game characters with a natural dialogue, human-like in their ways of relating to others, who gossip, manipulate and have their own agendas. New research can make all of this possible, according to a new doctoral thesis from the University of Gothenburg and the University of Skövde.
As the Board of Govenors at the University of Skövde approved the annual report for 2013 last week, they could sum up a year of good results. The University of Skövde has a budget surplus of 30 million Swedish kronor, full production in its educational assignment and research funding won in competition with other researchers have increased by close to 20 percent.
During 2013, all research and co-production at the University of Skövde were evaluated by international experts, and the results have now been published in a report, ARC13. The research performed at the University of Skövde is deemed as being of high quality in this international comparison.
In heavy snowfall, The University of Skövde welcomed international students from all over the world. Some of them are here for the first time, others are returning students. In total, the University of Skövde expects 65 exchange students and 20 master students this semester.
On the 18th of December, Tehseen Aslam successfully presented and defended his PhD thesis at the University of Skövde. His research analyses manufacturing supply chains using system dynamics and multi-objective optimization.
An important part of the University of Skövde’s internationalization process, is to develop new and attractive exchange agreements with foreign universities. Currently, the University of Skövde has 90 such agreements in thirty countries. And soon, there may be more. Vice-Chancellor Sigbritt Karlsson and Deputy Vice-Chancellor Afrouz Behboudi will travel to South Korea to explore the possibilities of cooperation with several South Korean universities.
The mid-term result of the large quality evaluation of the country’s higher education programmes, by the Swedish Council for Higher Education, puts the University of Skövde in fifth place alongside the University of Gothenburg. The two universities place themselves just after Linköping University, Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet and Chalmers. "Especially noteworthy is that the University of Skövde shows up among the older universities," writes report author and Professor Mats Ericson.
Researchers from the University of Skövde received Volvo Cars Technology Award 2013 last week. The project which received the prize, Holistic Simulation Optimization (HPO), is a collaborative project between Volvo Cars and the University of Skövde, and has been running since 2008. Case studies performed at Volvo Cars constitute the basis for the project.
Cognitive science has during the last few decades focused, to a large extent, on explanations of cognition as grounded in the body. Henrik Svensson’s dissertation shows how it is possible to explain higher level cognitive abilities as simulated actions and perceptions. It also introduces the hypothesis that dreams during childhood, among other things, has a function in assisting the brain in developing the ability to create simulations that could be used in the waking state.
Pilgway, an international company at the forefront of 3D technology, is investing in academic game development worldwide with its innovative 3D software. Now the company has chosen to collaborate with the University of Skövde –with software worth approximately SEK 360 000.
Welcome to a lecture about Game Based Learning. What are the profits? Why is it not used more often? How do we overcome the obstacles?
The University organises Researchers' Night (sw: ForskarFredag) on Friday, 27 September 2013.
Charlotta Zelander Bävholm won the Promise Prize in 2013 for her thesis on the characters of e-learning games for high school students.
Lena Mårtensson, assistant professor at the University of Skövde, has been appointed by the board to the position as Pro Vice-Chancellor.
The university’s research is greater than ever. Currently there are 97 active researchers who has a turnover of 93 million SEK. During this week 22 international experts gathers at the university to evaluate the research from an international perspective.
The Swedish team The Alliance won more than $1,4 in the international computer game championship in USA.
A multidisciplinary group of researchers from University of Skövde, Sweden and University of Turku and University of Helsinki, Finland has found evidence that hypnotic suggestion can modify processing of a targeted stimulus before it reaches consciousness.
IMDA awards University of Skövde docent, Desalegn Abraha Gebrekidan in Taiwan.
On Thursday, May 30, a total of eight teachers at the University of Skövde received an acknowledgment of their educational excellence.
The rector of the University of Skövde, Sigbritt Karlsson, has been nominated to the award "Public Director of the Year". The award ceremony takes place on 29th of May in Stockholm.
On April 29, 24 outstanding students recieved a diploma from the Swedish Secretary of Commerce Ewa Björling, for their choise to choose Sweden as a destination for their master studies.
The University of Skövde has gone from a low position to one of the top ranked universities in the Environmental Protection Agency's annual report, "Environmental management in central government agencies".
On Saturday, March 23d, at 8:30 pm to 9:30 pm it is Earth Hour around the globe – and at the University of Skövde. This year the theme is "I will if you will" – a challenge that extends beyond the hour.
Student’s from the University of Skövde are about to create a computer game based on the book “Momo, or the strange story of the time-thieves and the child who brought the stolen time back to people” by Michael Ende.
On Tuesday, 26th of February, the University of Skövde received a visit from Dr. Christian Kennett from the School of Media, Arts and Design of the University of Westminster.
Researchers at the University of Skövde participate in the Human Brain Project. The project is a multimillion research investment from the EU, where over 80 different institutions work together to map the human brain.
Per Anders Östblad received the 2012 diversity Scholarship at the University of Skövde. He received the award for his essay that studies how computer games can be used as aids for the visually impaired.
It is now official; in November 2013 the Swedish Society of Nursing will hold a conference on hospital placement training in Skövde. It will be the largest Conference that the University of Skövde has hosted so far.
Margot Wallström, the former Swedish Minister of Culture, Minister of Social Affairs, Deputy Civil Minister, EU Commissioner, EU’s Environment Commissioner and last but not least the First Vice-President of the European Union Commission under President José Manuel Barroso. Margot Wallström will lecture at The University of Skövde on the topic “When women become weapons in the world and everyday conflicts” on Tuesday December 11th, 2012.
In conjunction with Nobel Day 2012, The University of Skövde organizes and hosts a Nobel celebration this Thursday December 6th. Three experts will present and discuss this year’s Nobel Prize works in literature, medicine and chemistry.
Two Brazilian researchers have been selected to join a team of their peers at The University of Skövde in order to further study the correlation between academia and industry as well as information security systems research.
Last month 18 former international students gathered for a reunion in Skövde. They wanted to celebrate that ten years have passed since they first arrived on campus at the University of Skövde as international exchange students in 2002.
In the spirit of upholding traditions and celebrating academics, the University of Skövde held a grand professorial inaugurations reception this past Friday, the 12th of October, at the St Helena Church, one of Skövde’s historical hotspots.